Compared to unprocessed biomass feedstocks (sometimes referred to as "loose" or "raw" biomass), densified fuels -- pellets or briquettes -- have several significant benefits:

  • consistent quality
  • materials transport, handling, and in-feed

  • higher energy content and bulk density

  • store-ability
  • convenience


Economic considerations: The benefits of densified fuels come at a price...densified fuels are significantly more expensive (in $/ton or $/MM Btu) than unprocessed biomass.

  • an economic analysis should be performed for a specific proposed application to determine if the benefits justify the extra cost (i.e., is a bioenergy system using densified fuel economically feasible?)


BioEnergy Systems LLC (BES) has substantial experience with pellet/briquette production systems and utilization technologies.

  • Contact BES for assistance for a design or feasibility assessment of projects producing / using densified fuels.


Densified fuels are manufactured in two forms:

  • pellets… Pellets produced for residential pellet-fired heating systems (the primary market for pellets) are 1/4" or 5/16" diameter, up to 1" long, have a bulk density of 40~45 pounds per cubic foot, less than 0.5% fines, less than 300 PPM chlorides, and less than 1% ash (for premium grade -- standard grade fuel is less than 3% ash).
  • briquettes… briquettes are produced in a variety of shapes and sizes from a variety of feedstocks



Densified fuels can be produced from a variety of feedstocks:

  • woody residues
  • agricultural field residues
  • dedicated energy crops
  • various waste materials (e.g., waste paper)

wood pellets


briquettes (cubed; 1.25" per side)